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Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield

The idea of installing anti-aircraft machine guns and self-propelled weapons on a mobile base appeared at the very dawn of the use of aircraft for military purposes. During the First World War, anti-aircraft machine guns and weapons were massively installed on the chassis of commercial and military trucks and were used on almost all fronts.

In the interwar period, the next generation of self-propelled anti-aircraft guns (SPAAG) was developed. On a pilot basis, or even in small series, specialized SPAAGs were built in different countries of the world. Usually, they were created on the chassis of mass-produced vehicles – large trucks, armored vehicles, tanks, artillery tractors.

Anti-aircraft weapons on a wheelbase usually had proven insufficient stability. It was necessary to equip them with additional supports that were used when shooting, which limited the use of such SPAAGs in motion. Suddenly, self-propelled anti-aircraft guns on a tracked base had proven to be more suitable for direct anti-aircraft support on the march or in battle, as well as to have better cross-country ability.

Such machines gradually became the basis of military air defense. The task of military air defense weapons is to cover the ground forces, particularly during combat operations, so most of them are protected at least by bulletproof armor.

After the end of the Second World War, the progressive development of anti-aircraft self-propelled artillery systems was suspended by the appearance of guided surface-to-air missiles. Missile armament first replenished, and then largely displaced artillery from the army's air defense.

The review presents photos of three dozen tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft guns of the period from the early 40s to the present.

If the background of the photos interferes with the reading of the reference information, you can hover the mouse cursor over the text — this will darken the background of the caption.

​​Landsverk L-62 Anti II, Sweden. A SPAAG based on the Landsverk L-60 tank. Produced since 1941. Weight: 9.5 tons, engine: 160 hp, crew: 5 people. Weapon: 40 mm automatic cannon. 6 vehicles released. Were in service of Finland - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Landsverk L-62 Anti II, Sweden. A SPAAG based on the Landsverk L-60 tank. Produced since 1941. Weight: 9.5 tons, engine: 160 hp, crew: 5 people. Weapon: 40 mm automatic cannon. 6 vehicles released. Were in service of Finland
​​40M Nimród, Sweden/Hungary. A SPAAG on the extended chassis of the 38M Toldi tank (a licensed version of the Swedish L-60). Weight: 10.5 tons, engine: 155 hp, crew: 6 people. Weapon: 40 mm automatic cannon. Was in service of Hungary. 135 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​40M Nimród, Sweden/Hungary. A SPAAG on the extended chassis of the 38M Toldi tank (a licensed version of the Swedish L-60). Weight: 10.5 tons, engine: 155 hp, crew: 6 people. Weapon: 40 mm automatic cannon. Was in service of Hungary. 135 vehicles released
​​Flakpanzer IV «Wirbelwind» («Whirlwind» or «Tornado»), a SPAAG based on Pz.Kpfw. IV. Germany. Produced in 1944-1945. Weight: 22 tons, engine: 300 hp, crew: 5 people. Armament: a quad 20-mm automatic cannon (3200 rounds of ammunition), a 7.92-mm machine gun (1350 rounds). From 87 to 105 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Flakpanzer IV «Wirbelwind» («Whirlwind» or «Tornado»), a SPAAG based on Pz.Kpfw. IV. Germany. Produced in 1944-1945. Weight: 22 tons, engine: 300 hp, crew: 5 people. Armament: a quad 20-mm automatic cannon (3200 rounds of ammunition), a 7.92-mm machine gun (1350 rounds). From 87 to 105 vehicles released
​Flakpanzer IV «Möbelwagen» («Furniture van»), a SPAAG based on the PzKpfw IV. Germany. Produced in 1944-1945. Weight: 24 tons, engine: 300 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 37-mm automatic cannon (ammunition capacity: 416 rounds), 7.92-mm machine gun (600 rounds). About 240 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
Flakpanzer IV «Möbelwagen» («Furniture van»), a SPAAG based on the PzKpfw IV. Germany. Produced in 1944-1945. Weight: 24 tons, engine: 300 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 37-mm automatic cannon (ammunition capacity: 416 rounds), 7.92-mm machine gun (600 rounds). About 240 vehicles released
​​Crusader III AA Mk I, United Kingdom. A SPAAG based on the Crusader Mk III tank. Main armament: 40 mm automatic cannon - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Crusader III AA Mk I, United Kingdom. A SPAAG based on the Crusader Mk III tank. Main armament: 40 mm automatic cannon
​​Flakpanzer IV «Ostwind» («East Wind»), another SPAAG based on Pz.Kpfw. IV. Germany. Produced in 1944-1945. Weight: 25 tons, engine: 300 hp, crew: 5 people. Armament: 37-mm automatic cannon (ammunition capacity: 1000 rounds), 7.92-mm machine gun (1350 rounds). 43-45 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Flakpanzer IV «Ostwind» («East Wind»), another SPAAG based on Pz.Kpfw. IV. Germany. Produced in 1944-1945. Weight: 25 tons, engine: 300 hp, crew: 5 people. Armament: 37-mm automatic cannon (ammunition capacity: 1000 rounds), 7.92-mm machine gun (1350 rounds). 43-45 vehicles released
​​Crusader III AA Mk III, United Kingdom. A variant of the SPAAG based on the Crusader Mk III tank, armed with two 20-mm cannons (the same type as the Crusader III AA Mk II, from which it differed only by the radio station transferred from the turret to the hull) - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Crusader III AA Mk III, United Kingdom. A variant of the SPAAG based on the Crusader Mk III tank, armed with two 20-mm cannons (the same type as the Crusader III AA Mk II, from which it differed only by the radio station transferred from the turret to the hull)
​​ZSU-37, USSR. Created on the base of the SU-76. Weight: 11.5 tons, engines: 2×80 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 37-mm automatic cannon, 320 rounds of ammunition. Produced from 1945 to 1948, 75 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​ZSU-37, USSR. Created on the base of the SU-76. Weight: 11.5 tons, engines: 2×80 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 37-mm automatic cannon, 320 rounds of ammunition. Produced from 1945 to 1948, 75 vehicles released
​​M19 MGMC (Multiple Gun Motor Carriage), USA. A SPAAG based on the M24 «Chaffee» tank. Used in 1945-1953. Weight: 17,5 tons, engine: 220 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 2×40 mm cannons, ammunition: 352 rounds. 285 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​M19 MGMC (Multiple Gun Motor Carriage), USA. A SPAAG based on the M24 «Chaffee» tank. Used in 1945-1953. Weight: 17,5 tons, engine: 220 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 2×40 mm cannons, ammunition: 352 rounds. 285 vehicles released
​​Lvkv m/43, Sweden. A SPAAG based on the Strv m/42 tank. Entered service in 1947. Weight: 15.9 tons, engine: 162 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 2×40 mm automatic cannons. 17 vehicles released ointres.se - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Lvkv m/43, Sweden. A SPAAG based on the Strv m/42 tank. Entered service in 1947. Weight: 15.9 tons, engine: 162 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 2×40 mm automatic cannons. 17 vehicles released
ointres.se
​​M42 Duster, USA. A SPAAG based on the M41 Walker Bulldog tank. In operation since 1953. Weight: 22.6 tons, engine: 500 hp, crew: 4-6 people. Armament: 2×40 mm cannons (336 rounds of ammunition), 7.62 mm machine gun. About 3700 vehicles released, used in the USA, Japan, Germany and other countries - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​M42 Duster, USA. A SPAAG based on the M41 Walker Bulldog tank. In operation since 1953. Weight: 22.6 tons, engine: 500 hp, crew: 4-6 people. Armament: 2×40 mm cannons (336 rounds of ammunition), 7.62 mm machine gun. About 3700 vehicles released, used in the USA, Japan, Germany and other countries
​​Type 63, China. A SPAAG based on the Type 58 tank (a copy of the Soviet T-34-85). In operation since the early 1950s. Weight: 32 tons, engine: 580 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 2×37 mm automatic cannons. Was in service in China, was supplied to North Vietnam - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Type 63, China. A SPAAG based on the Type 58 tank (a copy of the Soviet T-34-85). In operation since the early 1950s. Weight: 32 tons, engine: 580 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 2×37 mm automatic cannons. Was in service in China, was supplied to North Vietnam
​​ZSU-57-2, USSR. Created on the chassis of the T-54 tank. In operation since 1955. Weight: 28 tons, engine: 520 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 2×57 mm cannons, 300 rounds of ammunition. 857 vehicles released. Were (or are still) in service in more than 20 countries - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​ZSU-57-2, USSR. Created on the chassis of the T-54 tank. In operation since 1955. Weight: 28 tons, engine: 520 hp, crew: 6 people. Armament: 2×57 mm cannons, 300 rounds of ammunition. 857 vehicles released. Were (or are still) in service in more than 20 countries
​​VEAK-4062, Sweden. Developed in 1960-1965 on the base of the Strv 103 tank. Weight: 29 tons, engines: 240+300 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×40 mm automatic cannons, 425 rounds of ammunition. This SPAAG did not enter service - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​VEAK-4062, Sweden. Developed in 1960-1965 on the base of the Strv 103 tank. Weight: 29 tons, engines: 240+300 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×40 mm automatic cannons, 425 rounds of ammunition. This SPAAG did not enter service
​​ZSU-23-4 «Shilka», USSR. In operation since 1965. Weight: 21 tons, engine: 280 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 4×23 mm cannons (2000 rounds of ammunition). About 6500 vehicles released. Is (or has been) in service in about 40 countries - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​ZSU-23-4 «Shilka», USSR. In operation since 1965. Weight: 21 tons, engine: 280 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 4×23 mm cannons (2000 rounds of ammunition). About 6500 vehicles released. Is (or has been) in service in about 40 countries
​​M163 VADS (Vulcan Air Defense System), USA. A SPAAG based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. In operation since 1968. Weight: 12.5 tons, engine: 212 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 20-mm automatic cannon with a rotating block of gun barrels, ammunition capacity of 2100 rounds. About 700 vehicles released, used in the USA, Israel, Egypt, South Korea and other countries - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​M163 VADS (Vulcan Air Defense System), USA. A SPAAG based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. In operation since 1968. Weight: 12.5 tons, engine: 212 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 20-mm automatic cannon with a rotating block of gun barrels, ammunition capacity of 2100 rounds. About 700 vehicles released, used in the USA, Israel, Egypt, South Korea and other countries
​​MIM-72 Chaparral, USA. A surface-to-air missile (SAM) system based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. In operation since 1969. Armament: 4 anti-aircraft missiles launchers, ammunition: 12 missiles. Is in service in Egypt (pictured), Israel, Morocco, Portugal, Tunisia and Taiwan. Removed from service in The USA and Chile - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​MIM-72 Chaparral, USA. A surface-to-air missile (SAM) system based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. In operation since 1969. Armament: 4 anti-aircraft missiles launchers, ammunition: 12 missiles. Is in service in Egypt (pictured), Israel, Morocco, Portugal, Tunisia and Taiwan. Removed from service in The USA and Chile
​​Strela-10, USSR. A SAM system based on MT-LB. In operation since 1976. Weight: 12.3 tons, engine: 240 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles, 7.62 mm machine gun. It is or has been in service in more than 20 countries - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Strela-10, USSR. A SAM system based on MT-LB. In operation since 1976. Weight: 12.3 tons, engine: 240 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles, 7.62 mm machine gun. It is or has been in service in more than 20 countries
​​FlakPz Gepard, West Germany. A SPAAG on the chassis of the Leopard 1 tank. In operation since 1976. Weight: 47.3 tons, engine: 830 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×35 mm automatic cannons (680 rounds of ammunition). About 500 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​FlakPz Gepard, West Germany. A SPAAG on the chassis of the Leopard 1 tank. In operation since 1976. Weight: 47.3 tons, engine: 830 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×35 mm automatic cannons (680 rounds of ammunition). About 500 vehicles released
​​2K22 «Tunguska», USSR. In operation since 1982. Weight: 34 tons, engine: 840 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: two 30-mm double-barreled automatic cannons (1904 rounds of ammunition), 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles. It is in service in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, India, Morocco, and other countries - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​2K22 «Tunguska», USSR. In operation since 1982. Weight: 34 tons, engine: 840 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: two 30-mm double-barreled automatic cannons (1904 rounds of ammunition), 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles. It is in service in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, India, Morocco, and other countries
​​M247 Sergeant York, USA. An experimental SPAAG developed in 1977-1985 on the base of the M48 Patton tank. Weight: 54.4 tons, engine: 750 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×40 mm automatic cannons, 580 rounds of ammunition. 50 vehicles released, however, they did not enter service - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​M247 Sergeant York, USA. An experimental SPAAG developed in 1977-1985 on the base of the M48 Patton tank. Weight: 54.4 tons, engine: 750 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×40 mm automatic cannons, 580 rounds of ammunition. 50 vehicles released, however, they did not enter service
​​ADATS (Air Defense Anti-Tank System), USA/Switzerland. Had been produced since 1986. It is a universal missile system for combating air and ground targets based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. Weight: 15.8 tons, engine: 212 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 8 laser-guided missiles (range up to 10 km). 36 vehicles released, used by the army of Canada until 2012 reddit.com - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​ADATS (Air Defense Anti-Tank System), USA/Switzerland. Had been produced since 1986. It is a universal missile system for combating air and ground targets based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. Weight: 15.8 tons, engine: 212 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 8 laser-guided missiles (range up to 10 km). 36 vehicles released, used by the army of Canada
until 2012 reddit.com
​​9K330/9K331 «Tor», USSR. In operation since 1983. Weight: 32 tons, engine: 840 hp, crew: 3-4 people. Armament: 8 x SAM 9M330 - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​9K330/9K331 «Tor», USSR. In operation since 1983. Weight: 32 tons, engine: 840 hp, crew: 3-4 people. Armament: 8 x SAM 9M330
​​Type 87, Japan. A SPAAG based on the Type 74 tank. In operation since 1987. Weight: 44 tons, engine: 750 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×35 mm cannons. 52 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Type 87, Japan. A SPAAG based on the Type 74 tank. In operation since 1987. Weight: 44 tons, engine: 750 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×35 mm cannons. 52 vehicles released
​​SIDAM 25, Italy. A SPAAG based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. Entered service in Italy in 1987. Weight: 15.1 tons, engine: 266 hp, crew: 3-4 people. Armament: 4×25 mm automatic cannons, 630 rounds of ammunition - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​SIDAM 25, Italy. A SPAAG based on the M113 armored personnel carrier. Entered service in Italy in 1987. Weight: 15.1 tons, engine: 266 hp, crew: 3-4 people. Armament: 4×25 mm automatic cannons, 630 rounds of ammunition
​​ITPSV 90. In operation since 1990. British Marksman turret on the chassis of the Polish-made T-55AM tank. 7 vehicles released, used by the Finnish Army. Since 2010, they have been stored; reinstallation of the turrets on the chassis of the Leopard 2A4 tank is planned - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​ITPSV 90. In operation since 1990. British Marksman turret on the chassis of the Polish-made T-55AM tank. 7 vehicles released, used by the Finnish Army. Since 2010, they have been stored; reinstallation of the turrets on the chassis of the Leopard 2A4 tank is planned
​​PZA Loara, Poland. A SPAAG based on the upgraded T-72 chassis. In operation since the late 1990s. Weight: 45.3 tons, engine: 1000 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×35 mm automatic cannons. From 2 to 4 vehicles released - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​PZA Loara, Poland. A SPAAG based on the upgraded T-72 chassis. In operation since the late 1990s. Weight: 45.3 tons, engine: 1000 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: 2×35 mm automatic cannons. From 2 to 4 vehicles released
​​K30 Biho, South Korea. In operation since 1999. Weight: 25 tons, engine: 520 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 2×30 mm cannons, Shingung MANPADS. 176 vehicles released primeportal.net - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​K30 Biho, South Korea. In operation since 1999. Weight: 25 tons, engine: 520 hp, crew: 4 people. Armament: 2×30 mm cannons, Shingung MANPADS. 176 vehicles released primeportal.net
​​Type 95 (PGZ-95), China. In operation since 1999. Weight: 22.5 tons, crew: 3 people. Armament: 4×25 mm guns (1000 rounds of ammunition), 4 QW-2 MANPADS primeportal.net - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Type 95 (PGZ-95), China. In operation since 1999. Weight: 22.5 tons, crew: 3 people. Armament: 4×25 mm guns (1000 rounds of ammunition), 4 QW-2 MANPADS
primeportal.net
​​Wiesel 2 Ozelot, Germany. In operation since 2001. Weight: 4.1 tons, engine: 110 hp, crew: 2 people. Weapons: 4 «Stinger» missiles launchers (range up to 6 km, 8 missiles in the ammunition), 7.62-mm machine gun (600 rounds). Is in service in Germany (45 vehicles) - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Wiesel 2 Ozelot, Germany. In operation since 2001. Weight: 4.1 tons, engine: 110 hp, crew: 2 people. Weapons: 4 «Stinger» missiles launchers (range up to 6 km, 8 missiles in the ammunition), 7.62-mm machine gun (600 rounds). Is in service in Germany (45 vehicles)
​​Pantsir-S1, Russia (on a GM352M1E tracked chassis on the photo). Entered service in 2012. Weight: 35 tons, engine: 710-840 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: two 30-mm double-barreled automatic cannons (1400 rounds of ammunition), 12 57E6-E surface-to-air missiles - Ground Forces Anti-Aircraft Shield | Warspot.net
​Pantsir-S1, Russia (on a GM352M1E tracked chassis on the photo). Entered service in 2012. Weight: 35 tons, engine: 710-840 hp, crew: 3 people. Armament: two 30-mm double-barreled automatic cannons (1400 rounds of ammunition), 12 57E6-E surface-to-air missiles

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