Evolution of Military Light Utility Vehicle
08 April '21
The military were interested in the cars almost immediately after their appearance. By the beginning of World War II, a new class of vehicles appeared in the armies of different countries — military light utility vehicle (LUV). However, the word «military» at that time could safely be skipped – the armed forces became customers and the first consumers of LUV. Despite a similar purpose, vehicles designed for transporting personnel, cargo, installing light and medium weapons in different countries turned out to be different. We will trace the evolution of military light utility vehicle from the late 1930s to the present day using the most remarkable ones as an example.
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Volkswagen Typ 82. Germany. It was produced since 1938, in large series since November 1940. Weight 0.7 tons. Engine – 1.2 L Gasoline, 25 hp. Maximum speed 60 km / h. 50 436 cars were produced in total until the summer of 1945
Dodge WC, USA. It was produced since 1940. Weight 2.3 tons. Engine – 3.8 L Gasoline, 92 hp. Maximum speed 92 km / h. In various modifications (including 6×6 Truck), about 255,000 vehicles were produced.
Willys MB, USA. It was produced in large series since 1941. Weight 1.1 tons. Engine – 2.2 L Gasoline, 60 hp. Maximum speed 104 km / h. Taking into account the copies of the Ford GPW, 659,031 cars were produced, about 52000 of which were delivered to the U.S.S.R. under the Lend-Lease program.
GAZ-64, USSR. It was produced in 1941–1943. Weight 1.2 tons. Engine – 3.3 L Gasoline, 50 hp. Maximum speed 100 km / h. 672 were produced – about 1% of the «Willys» delivered under the Lend-Lease
GAZ-67, USSR. It was produced in 1943–1953. Weight 1.32 tons. Engine – 3.3 L Gasoline, 54 hp. Maximum speed 90 km / h. About 95000 cars were produced, including 4 851 during the World War II. It was a further development of GAZ-64
Land Rover Series I, UK. It was produced since 1948. Weight 1.2 tons. Engine – 1.6 L Gasoline, 50 hp. In various modifications, Land Rover I, II and III series was in service with the armies of more than 50 countries of the world.
GAZ-69, USSR. It was produced in 1952–1972. Weight 1.5 tons. Engine – 2.1 L, 55 hp. Maximum speed 90 km / h. More than 600 000 cars were produced. Was exported into 56 countries. In addition to the USSR., it was produced in Romania (until 1975) and North Korea
M151 MUTT, USA. It was produced in 1959–1982. Weight 1.07 tons. Engine – 2.32 L Gasoline, 71 hp. Maximum speed 112 km / h. More than 100 000 cars were produced
LuAZ-967, USSR. It was produced in 1961–1989. Weight 0.95 tons. Engine – 1.2 L Gasoline, 30 hp.
Horch P3, East Germany. It was produced in 1962–1966. Weight 1.86 tons. Engine – 2.4 L, 75 hp. Maximum speed 95 km / h. Was in service with the National People's Army and the border troops of the East Germany. About 3000 cars were produced
UAZ-469, USSR. It was produced in 1972–2010. Weight 1.65 tons. Engine – 2.5 L Gasoline, 75 hp. Maximum speed 120 km / h. In addition to the U.S.S.R., it was produced in Cuba and Vietnam. Was exported to the dozens of countries
Volkswagen Iltis, West Germany. It was produced in 1978–1988. Weight 1.3 tons. Engine – 1.7 L Gasoline, 75 hp. 16 000 cars were produced. Decommissioned in Germany, it is currently in service in the armies of Belgium, Canada and Estonia.
Mercedes-Benz G-сlass W 461, Austria/Germany. It has been produced since 1979. Weight 2,3–2,6 tons. Wide range of installed engines, from 73 to 156 hp. Currently, it serves in more than 20 countries, including Germany, the United States, Switzerland, Canada, Norway, Argentina, Australia, the Netherlands, and Egypt
HMMWV, или Humvee, USA. It has been produced since 1985. Weight 2,7 tons. At first, a 5.7 L gasoline engine was installed, but soon it was replaced by a 6.2 L diesel engine with a capacity of 160 hp. The 5.5 L turbocharged version has 195 hp and accelerates the car to 140 km / h. More than 280 000 copies of HMMWV were produced, which are in service with the armies of more than 40 countries of the world
Lamborghini LM002, Italy. It was produced in 1986–1993. Weight 2,7 tons. Engine – 5.1 L Gasoline, 444 hp. Maximum speed 188 km / h. 301 car were produced, including 100 for army of Libya and 40 for Saudi Arabia. Lamborghini's only production SUV
Panhard GD VBL, France. Adopted by the French army in 1990. Weight 3,8 tons. Engine – 95 hp (129 in later versions). Maximum speed 95 km / h. There are about 1470 cars in France, 1231 in Mexico, 243 in Greece, 56 in Oman, 72 in Nigeria, 64 in Botswana. In addition to these countries, it is used by about a dozen other states (Portugal, Georgia, Rwanda, Kuwait, Indonesia, etc.)
MOWAG Eagle series I, II (on photo), III. Switzerland. It has been produced since 1994. Weight 5 tons. Engine – 6.5 L, 159 hp. In service in Switzerland (449 units) and Denmark (36 vehicles)
Toyota Mega Cruiser, Japan. It was produced in 1995–2002. Weight 2,9 tons. Engine – 4.1 L Diesel, 153 hp. In service with the Japan Self-Defense Forces
URO VAMTAC, Spain. It has been produced since 1998. Weight 3 tons. Engine – 3 L, 166 hp. About 4000 produced. In service in Spain (about 2,900 vehicles), Morocco (1,200 vehicles), Malaysia (85), Romania (60), Belgium, Portugal, Ghana, and the Dominican Republic
Iveco LMV , Italy. It has been produced since 2001. Weight 6,5 тонн. Engine power 185 hp. In service in Italy (over 1150 units), Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Great Britain, Spain, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic
RG-32 (photo of modification RG-32M), South Africa. It has been produced since 2002.Weight 6,1 tons. Engine – 3,8 L, Diesel, 150 hp. (modification Scout). Maximum speed 120 km / h. A total of about 800 vehicles were produced, is in service in South Africa (400 vehicles), Sweden (260), Egypt (112), Georgia, Saudi Arabia, Finland, Ireland, Tanzania and UN forces
MOWAG Eagle series IV (photo), V. Switzerland. It has been produced since 2003. Weight 7–10 tons (4×4). Engine – 5,9 L, 250 hp. In service in Switzerland (1 car in the police of the canton of Zurich), Denmark (90), Germany (848 cars in the Bundeswehr and 10 in the police)
Agrale Marrua, Brazil. It has been produced since 2004. Weight 1,96 tons. Engine – 2.8 L, Diesel, 132 hp. Maximum speed 128 km / h. In service with Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Ecuador
GAZ-2330 «Tiger». Russia. It has been produced since 2005. Weight 6,4 tons. Engine – 4,4 L, 215 hp. Maximum speed 160 km / h. In service in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Guinea, Jordan, Kazakhstan, China, Republic of the Congo, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Uruguay
VLEGA Gaucho, Argentina/Brazil. It has been produced since 2006. Weight 2,1 tons. Engine – 3,6 L, Diesel, 130 hp. Maximum speed 120 km / h. Joint development of the two countries, produced in Argentina. It is in service in Argentina and Brazil, in total, 1200 machines are planned to be delivered to the armed forces of these two countries.
PVP, France. Supplied to the troops since 2008. Weight 4,4 tons. Engine – 3,8 L, Diesel, 160 hp. Maximum speed 120 km / h (limited to 100 km / h). It is in service in France (in 2015, the total number is about 1,500), Romania (15), Chile (9) and Togo (6 vehicles)
SRM-1 «Kozak», Ukraine. Developed in 2008-2009. Weight 5,5 tons. Engine – 3 L, Diesel, 176 hp. 1 vehicle from the beginning of 2015 is in service with the State Border Service of Ukraine
Oshkosh L-ATV, USA. It has been produced since 2011. Weight 6,4 tons. Engine – 6.6 L, Diesel, 300 hp. Maximum speed 110 km / h. The need for the US military alone is estimated at 54,600 vehicles.