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Main Calibers | Warspot.net
Main Calibers

Gigantomania has been relentlessly following artillery almost since its appearance. Already in the first half of the XV century, European gunsmiths created huge bombards with a caliber of more than 600 mm. In 1586, an 890-mm Tsar cannon was cast in Moscow, which for several centuries held the title of the gun with the largest bore diameter. And only in the XIX century, with its rapid industrial revolution and mass armies, it was possible to break this record. In 1857, the Irish engineer Robert Mallet designed and built 914-mm mortars, which were supposed to be used in the Crimean War.

100 years later, in 1957, in the Soviet Union, the Leningrad Kirov plant built 420-mm self-propelled mortars 2B1 Oka with 20-meter barrels designed for firing nuclear ammunition. These installations turned out to be a kind of swan song of extra-large caliber artillery. On the one hand, the huge return and a number of other shortcomings did not allow the 2B1 to be put into operation. On the other hand, missiles were already successfully coping with the task of delivering heavy ammunition over long distances by this time.

We offer you to recall the most interesting examples of the last century in the history of the great guns.

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​914-mm mortar Mallet, Great Britain. Two such mortars were built for participation in the Crimean War but were ready only by May 1857 (a year after the end of the war). During the tests, shells weighing from 1067 to 1334 kilograms were fired from a 43-ton mortar. The firing range reached 2532 meters. Mallet's mortars were not used in combat - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
914-mm mortar Mallet, Great Britain. Two such mortars were built for participation in the Crimean War but were ready only by May 1857 (a year after the end of the war). During the tests, shells weighing from 1067 to 1334 kilograms were fired from a 43-ton mortar. The firing range reached 2532 meters. Mallet's mortars were not used in combat
​508-mm 'Perm Tsar-Cannon', Russia. It was cast in 1868. The weight of the trunk is 46 tons, the length is 4.9 meters. The weight of the core is 459 kg, the firing range is up to 1.2 km. It was not used in the battle - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
508-mm 'Perm Tsar-Cannon', Russia. It was cast in 1868. The weight of the trunk is 46 tons, the length is 4.9 meters. The weight of the core is 459 kg, the firing range is up to 1.2 km. It was not used in the battle
​450-mm RML 17.72 inch gun, Great Britain. From 1874 to 1883, 15 of these most powerful naval guns of the XIX century were built. 8 of them were sold to Italy for arming two battleships of the type «Cayo Duilio». The British installed 2 guns each in Malta and Gibraltar. The weight is 103 tons, the barrel length is 9.22 meters. The weight of the projectile is 910 kg, the firing range is 6 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
450-mm RML 17.72 inch gun, Great Britain. From 1874 to 1883, 15 of these most powerful naval guns of the XIX century were built. 8 of them were sold to Italy for arming two battleships of the type «Cayo Duilio». The British installed 2 guns each in Malta and Gibraltar. The weight is 103 tons, the barrel length is 9.22 meters. The weight of the projectile is 910 kg, the firing range is 6 km
​420-mm mortar Gamma Mörser, Germany (in the photo — at a position near Sevastopol during the Great Patriotic War). From 1912 to 1918, about 10 such guns were built. The weight is 140 tons, the barrel length is 6.7 meters. The mass of the projectile is 1003 kg, the firing range is up to 14 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
420-mm mortar Gamma Mörser, Germany (in the photo — at a position near Sevastopol during the Great Patriotic War). From 1912 to 1918, about 10 such guns were built. The weight is 140 tons, the barrel length is 6.7 meters. The mass of the projectile is 1003 kg, the firing range is up to 14 km
​​420-mm howitzer Haubitze M. 14/16, Austria-Hungary. In 1914-1918. Škoda has built 8 such guns. In the photo, the M14 / 16 is in a circular rotation tower. The weight of the installation is 105 tons, the length of the trunk is 6.29 meters. The weight of the shells is 1020 kg, the firing range is up to 14,600 meters. One of the guns captured by the Germans in the Czech Republic in 1939 was used by them in the war against the USSR - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​420-mm howitzer Haubitze M. 14/16, Austria-Hungary. In 1914-1918. Škoda has built 8 such guns. In the photo, the M14 / 16 is in a circular rotation tower. The weight of the installation is 105 tons, the length of the trunk is 6.29 meters. The weight of the shells is 1020 kg, the firing range is up to 14,600 meters. One of the guns captured by the Germans in the Czech Republic in 1939 was used by them in the war against the USSR
​​420-mm mortar Big Bertha, Germany. From 1914 to the end of the First World War, 9-12 such guns were built. The weight of the installation is 47 tons, the barrel length is 5.88 meters. The weight of the projectile is 820 kg, the firing range is up to 12.5 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​420-mm mortar Big Bertha, Germany. From 1914 to the end of the First World War, 9-12 such guns were built. The weight of the installation is 47 tons, the barrel length is 5.88 meters. The weight of the projectile is 820 kg, the firing range is up to 12.5 km
​​Armed with a 457.2-mm naval gun BL 18-inch Mk I monitor General Wolf, Great Britain. In 1916-1917, three such naval guns were built, which were to become the main caliber of the light battle cruiser «Furies». The weight of the gun is 151 tons, the barrel length is 18.9 meters. The weight of the projectile is 1510 kg, the firing range is up to 37 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​Armed with a 457.2-mm naval gun BL 18-inch Mk I monitor General Wolf, Great Britain. In 1916-1917, three such naval guns were built, which were to become the main caliber of the light battle cruiser «Furies». The weight of the gun is 151 tons, the barrel length is 18.9 meters. The weight of the projectile is 1510 kg, the firing range is up to 37 km
​520-mm howitzer Obusier de 520 modèle 1916, France. In 1917-1918, two such guns were built. The weight of the installation is 263 tons, the barrel length is 11.9 meters. The mass of the shells is 1370-1654 kg, the firing range is up to 17,000 meters. Captured in 1940 in France, the howitzer was used by the Germans during the Great Patriotic War near Leningrad - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
520-mm howitzer Obusier de 520 modèle 1916, France. In 1917-1918, two such guns were built. The weight of the installation is 263 tons, the barrel length is 11.9 meters. The mass of the shells is 1370-1654 kg, the firing range is up to 17,000 meters. Captured in 1940 in France, the howitzer was used by the Germans during the Great Patriotic War near Leningrad
​​210-mm «Paris Cannon», Germany. The ultra-long-range gun of a relatively small caliber entered service at the beginning of 1918 and was used for shelling Paris. The weight of the installation is 256 tons, the length of the barrel is 34 meters. The weight of the projectile is 106 kg, the firing range is up to 130 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​210-mm «Paris Cannon», Germany. The ultra-long-range gun of a relatively small caliber entered service at the beginning of 1918 and was used for shelling Paris. The weight of the installation is 256 tons, the length of the barrel is 34 meters. The weight of the projectile is 106 kg, the firing range is up to 130 km
​​457.2 mm howitzer BL 18 inch railway howitzer, Great Britain. The 5 guns built were put into operation in 1920. Since the end of 1940, one of them was in the coastal defense system, but it was never used. The weight of the barrel and breech is 85.7 tons, the length of the barrel is 16 meters. The mass of the projectile is 1134 kg, the firing range is up to 20.4 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​457.2 mm howitzer BL 18 inch railway howitzer, Great Britain. The 5 guns built were put into operation in 1920. Since the end of 1940, one of them was in the coastal defense system, but it was never used. The weight of the barrel and breech is 85.7 tons, the length of the barrel is 16 meters. The mass of the projectile is 1134 kg, the firing range is up to 20.4 km
​​800-mm gun 80-cm-Kanone (E), Germany. In 1937-1941, two such guns were built, which received their own names «Dora» and «Gustav». The weight of the installation is 1350 tons, the barrel length is 32.5 meters. The weight of the shells is from 4.8 to 7 tons, the firing range is up to 47 km. In battle conditions (near Sevastopol), one gun served up to 5 thousand people - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​800-mm gun 80-cm-Kanone (E), Germany. In 1937-1941, two such guns were built, which received their own names «Dora» and «Gustav». The weight of the installation is 1350 tons, the barrel length is 32.5 meters. The weight of the shells is from 4.8 to 7 tons, the firing range is up to 47 km. In battle conditions (near Sevastopol), one gun served up to 5 thousand people
​​Three 460-mm Type 94 naval guns from the armament of the battleship Yamato, Japan. From the late 1930s to the end of the Second World War, 27 of these largest and most powerful naval guns were produced. The weight of the barrel with the breech is 164.7 tons, the length of the barrel is 21.13 meters. The mass of the projectile is up to 1460 kg, the firing range is up to 42 km - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​Three 460-mm Type 94 naval guns from the armament of the battleship Yamato, Japan. From the late 1930s to the end of the Second World War, 27 of these largest and most powerful naval guns were produced. The weight of the barrel with the breech is 164.7 tons, the length of the barrel is 21.13 meters. The mass of the projectile is up to 1460 kg, the firing range is up to 42 km
​600-mm mortar «Karl» with a transport-loading machine, Germany. In 1940-1941, 7 installations were built, which received proper names («Adam», «Eve», «Odin», «Thor», «Loki», «Tsiu», «Fenrir»). The weight of the installation is 124 tons, the barrel length is 4.2 meters. The weight of the shells is from 1250 to 2170 kg, the firing range of a concrete-piercing projectile weighing 2170 kg is up to 6700 meters - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
600-mm mortar «Karl» with a transport-loading machine, Germany. In 1940-1941, 7 installations were built, which received proper names («Adam», «Eve», «Odin», «Thor», «Loki», «Tsiu», «Fenrir»). The weight of the installation is 124 tons, the barrel length is 4.2 meters. The weight of the shells is from 1250 to 2170 kg, the firing range of a concrete-piercing projectile weighing 2170 kg is up to 6700 meters
​​914-mm mortar Little David and a shell for it, USA. The current state. It was built in 1944. The weight of the gun (without a base) is 40 tons, the barrel length is 6.7 meters, the projectile weight is 1656 kg. The firing range is up to 9.7 km. It was not used in the battle - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
​914-mm mortar Little David and a shell for it, USA. The current state. It was built in 1944. The weight of the gun (without a base) is 40 tons, the barrel length is 6.7 meters, the projectile weight is 1656 kg. The firing range is up to 9.7 km. It was not used in the battle
​420-mm mortar 2B1 «Oka», USSR. It was intended for firing nuclear ammunition. The weight of the installation is 55 tons, the length of the barrel is 20 meters. The firing range of an active-reactive mine is up to 50 km, the mass of the mine is 670 kg. In 1957, 4 cars were built - Main Calibers | Warspot.net
420-mm mortar 2B1 «Oka», USSR. It was intended for firing nuclear ammunition. The weight of the installation is 55 tons, the length of the barrel is 20 meters. The firing range of an active-reactive mine is up to 50 km, the mass of the mine is 670 kg. In 1957, 4 cars were built

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